kapocino itttaliano kapocino itttaliano .

kapocino itttaliano

fciurteuysxe

مجايگاه و اعتبارايران در اقتصاد جهاني را ارتقا مي‌دهد و مواهب ارزشمند متعددي به دنبال دارد.چنانچه برخي طرح‌هاي GTL درون كشور و به دور از دريا ساخته شوند مي‌توان بنزين توليدي در واحدهاي توليدي نزديك دريا را صادرو توليدات داخل كشور را صرف نياز داخل كردَ، البته مشروط به اينكه عرضه محصول به قيمت‌هاي جهاني انجام شود.شركت‌هاي صاحب تكنولوژي در حال مطالعه و انواع آزمايش‌ها به منظور توليد سين گاز با استفاده از CO٢ وH هستند پيش بيني مي‌شود كمتر از١٠ سال آينده اين هدف محقق شود كه در آن صورت با استفاده از co٢ و تبديل آن به سين گاز (co+H٢)مي‌توان محصولات بسيار Nedersaksies بص¡ְ¾صZ Norsk bokmهl
Occitan خכך ىאًטי
Oʻzbekcha/¢חلهךקא پنجابي
پښتو Polski Portuguךs ذٌٌَךטי
Scots Sicilianu Simple English Œlשnski
رًןٌךט / srpski Srpskohrvatski /
ًٌןٌךמًُגאٌٍךט Suomi Svenska
தமிழ் Trkחe زגא نכ
سךًא؟يٌךא ئۇيغۇرچە /
Uyghurche Tiếng Việt OiratsFrom
Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article
is about the Oirat ethnic group. For the
obsolete term for the Turkic Altays, see
Altay people. This article may require
cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality
standards. The specific problem is:
geographic names in the article do not match
existing wikipedia places-names; grammar in
some place is bad enough to make the
article's meaning unclear Please help improve
this article if you can. (September 2015)
(Learn how and when to remove this template
message)Oirat Mongolia XVI.pngTotal
population638,372Regions with significant
populations Mongolia 205,000 (2010 census)
Russia 183,372 (2010 census) China 250,000
(2013 estimate)LanguagesOirat, other
MongolianReligionTibetan Buddhism,
ShamanismRelated ethnic groupsMongols,
TuvansMongol Empire c.1207Fragment of
medieval Oirat mapOirats (Mongolian:
"מיًאن", "מיًن", Oird[needs IPA]; in
the past, also Eleuths[1]) are the
westernmost group of the Mongols whose
ancestral home is in the Altai region of
western Mongolia. Although the Oirats
originated in the eastern parts of Central
Asia, the most prominent group today is
located in Kalmykia, a federal subject of
Russia, where they are called
Kalmyks.Historically, the Oirats were
composed of four major tribes: Dzungar
(Choros or Olots), Torghut, Dِrbet, and
Khoshut. The minor tribes include: Khoid,
Bayads, Myangad, Zakhchin, Baatud.Contents 1
Etymology 2 Writing system 3 History 3.1
Early history 3.2 The Khoshut Khanate 3.3 The
Dzungar Khanate 3.4 Kalmyks 3.5 Xinjiang
Mongols 3.6 Alasha Mongols 3.6.1 Ejine
Mongols 4 Oirat tribes 5 Popular Culture 6
See also 7 External links 8 Literature 9
ReferencesEtymologyThe name probably means
"oi" (forest) and "ard" (person),[2] and they
were counted among the "forest people" in the
13th century[citation needed]. A second
opinion believes the name derives from
Mongolian word "oirt" (or "oirkhon") meaning
"close (as in distance)," as in "close/nearer
ones."The name Oirat may derive from a
corruption of the group's original name
Dِrben ضِrd, meaning "The Allied Four."
Perhaps inspired by the designation Dِrben
ضِrd, other Mongols at times used the term
"Dِchin Mongols" for themselves ("Dِchin"
meaning forty), but there was rarely as great
a degree of unity among larger numbers of
tribes as among the Oirats.Writing systemMain
articles: Zaya Pandita and Todo BichigIn the
17th century, Zaya Pandita,[3] a Gelug monk
of the Khoshut tribe, devised a new writing
system called Todo Bichig (clear script) for
use by the Oirat people. This system was
developed on the basis of the older Mongolian
script, but had a more developed system of
diacritics to preclude misreading, and
reflected some lexical and grammatical
differences of the Oirat language from
Mongolian.[4]The Todo Bichig writing system
remained in use in Kalmykia (Russia) until
the mid-1920s when it was replaced by a
Latin-based script, and later the Cyrillic
alphabet. It can be seen in some public signs
in the Kalmyk capital, Elista, and is
superficially taught in schools. In Mongolia
it was likewise replaced by the Cyrillic
alphabet in 1941. Some Oirats in China still
use Todo Bichig as their primary writing
system, as well as Mongolian script.A
monument of Zaya Pandita was unveiled on the
400th anniversary of Zaya Pandita's birth,
and on 350th anniversary of his creation of
the Tod Bichig.[5]HistoryThe Oirats share
some history, geography, culture and language
with the Eastern Mongols, and were at various
times united under the same leader as a
larger Mongol entity — whether that ruler
was of Oirat descent or of
Chingissids.Comprising the Khoshut
(Mongolian: "ُמََّن", hoڑuud), Choros
or ضlِt ("өөכن", ضِld), Torghut


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tzextrjxst

جلس و تصويب آن، اين تحول بزرگ محقق شود. توليد ۴۰ميليون تن بنزين و گازوئيل درآمد ملي را ۲۰ ميليون دلار در سال افزايش مي‌دهد و براي بيش از ۵۰ هزار نفر اشتغال مستقيم ايجاد مي‌شود. نكته حايز اهميت اينكه خوراك كارخانه‌هاي بزرگ صنعتي ياد شده جمعاً حدود٦٥ ميليارد متر مكعب گاز طبيعي در سال مي‌شود، در شرايط كنوني درآمد دولت از فروش ٦٥ ميليارد متر مكعب در سال حدود ۲ ميليارد دلار است و كمترين بهره‌وري را براي اقتصاد ملي به دنبال دارد اما تبديل ٦٥ميليارد متر مكعب گاز طبيعي به بنزين و گازوئيل ضمن اينكه درآمد كشور را سالانه ۲۰ ميليارد دلار افزايش مي‌دهد، Sweden: Laurentius Salvius. p.
65.Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. (1981). The Camel
(Camelus dromedarius): A Bibliographical
Review (PDF). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia:
International Livestock Centre for Africa.
pp. 1–147. open access publication – free
to readStanley, H.F.; Kadwell, M.; Wheeler,
J.C. (1994). "Molecular evolution of the
family Camelidae: a mitochondrial DNA study".
Proceedings of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences. 256 (1345): 1–6.
doi:10.1098/rspb.1994.0041.Burger, P.;
Silbermayr, K.; Charruau, P.; Lipp, L.;
Dulamtseren, E.; Yadmasuren, A.; Walzer, C.
"Genetic status of wild camels (Camelus
ferus) in Mongolia". in press.Chuluunbat, B.;
Charruau, P.; Silbermayr, K.; Khorloojav, T.;
Burger, P. A. (2014). "Genetic diversity and
population structure of Mongolian domestic
Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus)". Anim
Genet. 45: 550–558.
doi:10.1111/age.12158.Potts (2004), p.
145."Wild camels 'genetically unique'". Earth
News. BBC. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 22 July
2009.Wild Camel Protection Foundation. "Wild
Camels". Retrieved 7 December 2012."Bactrian
Camel". UltimateUngulate.com.Wand, C.;
Richardson, C. (November 2009). "Replacing
Water with Clean Snow for Ewes and Beef Cows"
(PDF). OMAFRA.gov.on.ca. Ontario Ministry of
Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Archived
from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015.
Retrieved February 9, 2017.Chen, B.X.; Yuen,
Z.X. & Pan, G.W. (1985). "Semen-induced
ovulation in the bactrian camel (Camelus
bactrianus)" (PDF). J. Reprod. Fert. 74 (2):
335–339. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0740335."camel",
Encyclopوdia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopوdia
Britannica Online. accessed 11 February
2007.Myths About Camels, The Hatch
Report.com.Al-Swailem, et al. Classification
of Saudi Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius)
subtypes based on RAPD technique., Journal of
Food, Agriculture and Environment, Vol.5 (1)
: 143–148. 2007.Ferguson, K. "Agricultural
Landscape: Invented Tradition of the Mesa
Verde World". Cortez: University of Cortez,
in press). Zentner, Joe. "The Desert Camel
Experiment". DesertUSA.com and Digital West
Media, Inc. Retrieved February 9,
2017.External links Wikimedia Commons has
media related to Camelus bactrianus.
Wikispecies has information related to:
Camelus bactrianus Camelus bactrianus,
University of Michigan Animal Diversity
project Handwerk, Brian (December 3, 2002).
"Wild Bactrian Camels Critically Endangered,
Group Says". National Geographic. Wild Camel
Protection Foundation Images of Bactrian
Camels at the Highland Wildlife Park,
Scotland by Aaron Sneddon "'New' camel lives
on salty water". BBC. 6 February 2001.;
discovery of camels in the Gashun Gobi
region[show] v t eExtant Artiodactyla
species[show] v t eCamelidsTaxon identifiers
BioLib:: 33502 EoL: 344581 GBIF: 2441238
ITIS: 625026 NCBI: 9837 Fossilworks: 104241
MSW: 14200112Categories: Domesticated animals
Camels Megafauna of Eurasia Mammals of China
Desert fauna Mammals of India Fauna of
Tajikistan Fauna of Kazakhstan Mammals of
Pakistan Mammals of Mongolia Livestock EDGE
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zgsdxxtjuxsr

جلس شوراي اسلامي به شركت ملي گاز يا شركت ملي صنايع پتروشيمي اجازه دهند تا رأساً با استفاده از ‍‍پشتوانه و منابع وزارت نفت و استفاده ازمنابع داخلي و سرمايه‌گذاري خارجي(فاينانس) در اين حوزه اقدام به سرمايه‌گذاري و ١٠ تا ٢٠كارخانه بزرگ GTL با ظرفيت توليد ۴۰ ميليون تن بنزين و گازوئيل در ايران ساخته شود. بعد از بهره‌برداري و به سود رسيدن اين واحدهاي بزرگ، دولت مي‌تواند آنها را از طريق بورس و روش‌هاي ديگر به بخش خصوصي واگذار كند. اين شيوه كاربردي‌ترين راه حل جهت دستيابي به اهداف ترسيم شده در زمان كوتاه و مناسب است كه اميد است دولت با ارايه لايحه به Drugs and Drug Addiction, p 17.Wasson, R.
Gordon. The Wondrous Mushroom: Mycolatry in
Mesoamerica, pp43–44Nyberg, H. (1992).
"Religious use of hallucinogenic fungi: A
comparison between Siberian and Mesoamerican
Cultures". Karstenia. 32 (71–80).Wasson,
Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality, p
161.Diaz, J. (1996). How Drugs Influence
Behavior: A Neurobehavioral Approach. Upper
Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN
0-02-328764-0.Ramsbottom, p 45.Wasson, Soma:
Divine Mushroom of Immortality, pp
234–35.Wasson, Soma: Divine Mushroom of
Immortality, p 279."Several Shutulis asserted
that Amanita-extract was administered orally
as a medicine for treatment of psychotic
conditions, as well as externally as a
therapy for localised frostbite." Mochtar, S.
G.; Geerken, H. (1979). Translated by P. G.
Werner. "The Hallucinogens Muscarine and
Ibotenic Acid in the Middle Hindu Kush: A
contribution on traditional medicinal
mycology in Afghanistan". Afghanistan Journal
(in German). 6: 62–65. Archived from the
original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved
2009-02-23.Peschel, Keewaydinoquay (1978).
Puhpohwee for the people: a narrative account
of some uses of fungi among the
Ahnishinaubeg. Cambridge, MA: Botanical
Museum of Harvard University. ISBN
1-879528-18-5.Navet, E. (1988). "Les Ojibway
et l'Amanite tue-mouche (Amanita muscaria).
Pour une éthnomycologie des Indiens
d'Amérique du Nord". Journal de la Société
des Américanistes (in French). 74 (1):
163–80. doi:10.3406/jsa.1988.1334.Letcher,
p 149.Larsen, S. (1976). The Shaman's
Doorway. New York, NY: Station Hill Press.
ISBN 0-89281-672-4.(in Swedish) Ödmann S.
(1784) Försök at utur Naturens Historia
förklara de nordiska gamla Kämpars
Berserka-gang (An attempt to Explain the
Berserk-raging of Ancient Nordic Warriors
through Natural History). Kongliga Vetenskaps
Academiens nya Handlingar 5: 240–247 (In:
Wasson, 1968)Hoffer, A.; Osmond, H. (1967).
The Hallucinogens. Academic Press. pp.
443–54. ISBN 0-12-351850-4.Lumpert (2016).
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traditional recipes from Slovenia and their
efficacy in the extraction of ibotenic acid".
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PMID 27063872.
doi:10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.009.Wasson, Soma:
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cdutkytcdru

جذب سرمايه‌گذاري در اين صنعت بزرگ فراهم شود. لازم است با حمايت مجلس شوراي اسلامي و دولت، نرخ خوراك براي اين نوع سرمايه‌گذاري در ۵ تا ۷ سال اول با تخفيف ويژه تحويل سرمايه‌گذار داخلي و خارجي شود تا بتوان ده‌ها ميليارد دلار سرمايه‌گذاري را جذب اين صنعت بزرگ كرد. همچنين بايد مشكل ارايه تضامين دولتي به تأمين‌كنندگان منابع مالي خارجي حل شود. ايجاد جذابيت‌هاي اقتصادي لازم جهت تشويق سرمايه‌گذاران خارجي براي ساخت واحدهاي بزرگ GTL در ايران مواهب ارزشمند و ماندگاري براي ملت و كشوربه دنبال دارد، اما چنانچه اين موانع بزرگ قابل رفع نيست پيشنهاد مي‌كنم D. (2008). "A Study of Cultural Bias in Field
Guide Determinations of Mushroom Edibility
Using the Iconic Mushroom, Amanita
Muscaria,as an Example" (PDF). Economic
Botany. 62 (3): 223–43.
doi:10.1007/s12231-008-9040-9.Shaw, Hank
(2011-12-24). "How to Safely Eat Amanita
Muscaia". honest-food.net. Archived from the
original on 2016-03-04.Schmiedeberg O.; Koppe
R. (1869). Das Muscarin, das giftige Alkaloid
des Fliegenpilzes (in German). Leipzig:
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(July 1968). "[Active substances from the
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206 (991): 1359–60. PMID 5891274.
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Müller, G. F.; Good, R. (June 1965). "[The
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5891631.
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K.; Inoue, N.; Aoyagi, Y.; Sugahara, T.
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(May 2000). "Investigations of Amavadin".
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"The first enantioselective synthesis of the
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(1976). Hallucinogenic Plants of North
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0-914728-15-6.Vale, J. A.; Kulig, K.;
American Academy of Clinical Toxicology
(2004). European Association of Poisons
Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. "Position
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– Clinical Toxicology. 42 (7): 933–43.
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doi:10.1081/CLT-200045006.American Academy Of
Clinical Toxico; European Association Of
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W. (2005). Critical care toxicology:
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Amanita pantherina. Report of 4 cases". South
African Medical Journal. 39 (39): 983–86.
PMID 5892794.European Monitoring Centre for
م


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براي هر متر مكعب گاز متان؛ قيمت ماده اوليه كمتر از ۳۰۰ ميليون دلار و قيمت ۲ ميليون تن محصول بيش از يك ميليارد دلار مي‌شود لذا اين تكنولوژي توليد بنزين براي كشور داراي ذخاير عظيم گاز طبيعي چون ايران اقتصادي‌ترين و منطقي‌ترين راه سرمايه‌گذاري است.سرمايه‌گذاران اين واحدهاي بزرگ صنعتي در ۵ سال اول پس از بهره‌برداري به دليل سرمايه‌گذاري بالاي اوليه چون بايد اصل وام‌هاي دريافتي و بهره آن را بازپرداخت كنند در شرايط سخت نقدينگي قرار مي‌گيرند لذا لازم است در ۵ تا ۷ سال اوليه بهره‌برداري دولت تخفيف ويژه‌اي در نرخ خوراك لحاظ كند تا جذابيت لازم جهت Under: the Fungimap guide to Australian
fungi. Melbourne: Royal Botanic Gardens. p.
21. ISBN 0-646-44674-6.Benjamin, Mushrooms:
poisons and panaceas, p 305.Reid DA (1980).
"A monograph of the Australian species of
Amanita Persoon ex Hooker (Fungi)".
Australian Journal of Botany. Supplementary.
Series 8: 1–96.
doi:10.1071/BT8008001.Segedin BP, Pennycook
SR (2001). "A nomenclatural checklist of
agarics, boletes, and related secotioid and
gasteromycetous fungi recorded from New
Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Botany. 39
(2): 285–348.
doi:10.1080/0028825X.2001.9512739.Reid DA;
Eicker A. (1991). "South African fungi: the
genus Amanita". Mycological Research. 95 (1):
80–95.
doi:10.1016/S0953-7562(09)81364-6.Wartchow F,
Maia LC, de Queirox Cavalcanti MA (2013).
"Taxonomic studies of Amanita muscaria (L.)
Lam (Amanitaceae, Agaricomycetes) and its
infraspecific taxa in Brazil". Acta Botanica
Brasilica. 27 (1): 31–39.
doi:10.1590/S0102-33062013000100005. open
access publication – free to readFuhrer BA
(2005). A field guide to Australian fungi.
Melbourne: Bloomings Books. p. 24. ISBN
1-876473-51-7.Hall IR; Stephenson SE;
Buchanan PK; Yn W; Cole AL (2003). Edible and
poisonous mushrooms of the world. New Zealand
Institute for Crop & Food Research Limited.
pp. 130–1. ISBN 0-478-10835-4.May T.
(2006). "News from the Fungimap president".
Fungimap Newsletter. Melbourne. 29:
1.Robinson R (2010). "First Record of Amanita
muscaria in Western Australia" (PDF).
Australasian Mycologist. 29 (1): 4–6.Keane
PJ; Kile GA; Podger FD (2000). Diseases and
pathogens of eucalypts. Canberra: CSIRO
Publishing. p. 85. ISBN
0-643-06523-7.Benjamin DR (1992). "Mushroom
poisoning in infants and children: the
Amanita pantherina/muscaria group". Journal
of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 30 (1):
13–22. PMID 1347320.
doi:10.3109/15563659208994442.Hoegberg LC;
Larsen L; Sonne L; Bang J; Skanning PG
(2008). "Three cases of Amanita muscaria
ingestion in children: two severe courses
[abstract]". Clinical Toxicology. 46 (5):
407–8. PMID 18568796.
doi:10.1080/15563650802071703.Benjamin,
Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, pp
303–04.Brvar, M.; Mozina, M.; Bunc, M. (May
2006). "Prolonged psychosis after Amanita
muscaria ingestion". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
118 (9–10): 294–7. PMID 16810488.
doi:10.1007/s00508-006-0581-6.Theobald W;
Büch O; Kunz HA; Krupp P; Stenger EG;
Heimann H. (March 1968). "[Pharmacological
and experimental psychological studies with 2
components of fly agaric (Amanita
muscaria)]". Arzneimittelforschung (in
German). 18 (3): 311–5. PMID
5696006.Chilton WS (1975). "The course of an
intentional poisoning". MacIlvanea. 2:
17.Satora, L.; Pach, D.; Butryn, B.; Hydzik,
P.; Balicka-Slusarczyk, B. (June 2005). "Fly
agaric (Amanita muscaria) poisoning, case
report and review". Toxicon. 45 (7): 941–3.
PMID 15904689.
doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.01.005.Benjamin,
Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, p
309.Cagliari GE (1897). "Mushroom poisoning".
Medical Record. 52: 298.Buck, R. W. (August
1963). "Toxicity of Amanita muscaria". JAMA.
185: 663–4. PMID 14016551.
doi:10.1001/jama.1963.03060080059020."Vecchi'
s death said to be due to a deliberate
experiment with poisonous mushrooms" (PDF).
New York Times. 19 December 1897. Retrieved
2009-02-02.Tupalska-Wilczyńska, K.;
Ignatowicz, R.; Poziemski, A.; Wójcik, H.;
Wilczyński, G. (1996). "Zatrucia muchomorami
plamistym i czerwonym--patogeneza, objawy,
leczenie" [Poisoning with spotted and red
mushrooms—pathogenesis, symptoms,
treatment]. Wiad. Lek. (in Polish). 49
(1–6): 66–71. PMID 9173659.Arora,
Mushrooms demystified, p 894."Mushroom
poisoning syndromes". North American
Mycological Association (NAMA) website. NAMA.
Archived from the original on 4 April 2009.
Retrieved 2009-03-22.Benjamin, Mushrooms:
poisons and panaceas, p 200.Piqueras, J. (10
January 1990). "Amanita muscaria, Amanita
pantherina and others". IPCS INTOX Databank.
Retrieved 2008-12-08.Benjamin, Mushrooms:
poisons and panaceas, p 310.Rubel, W.; Arora,


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duyeszew

ماده اوليه و محصول كم است و حدود ۷۰ درصد ماده اوليه به بنزين و گازوئيل تبديل مي‌شود.يكي از روش هاي توليد بنزين و گازوئيل،توليد از طريق گاز طبيعي و به روش كاتاليستي و فيشر تروپ انجام مي‌شود در اين فرآيند گاز متان به بنزين و گازوئيل يورو ۵ تبديل مي‌شود. در اين تكنولوژي كه GTL نام دارد سرمايه‌گذاري مورد نياز براي توليد هر يك ميليون تن در سال بنزين و گازوئيل يك ميليارد دلار است. مزيت ويژه تكنولوژي GTL اين است كه فاصله بين قيمت ماده اوليه و محصول قابل توجه است به گونه‌اي كه براي توليد ۲ ميليون تن محصول نياز به ۳.۳ ميليون تن گاز متان است. با لحاظ قيمت ۷.۵ سنت PMID 12747324.
doi:10.1017/S0953756203007305.Wasson, Soma:
Divine Mushroom of Immortality, p 194.Singer
R. (1986). The Agaricales in modern taxonomy
(4th ed.). Koenigstein, West Germany: Koeltz
Scientific Books. ISBN 3-87429-254-1.Jenkins
DT (1986). Amanita of North America. Mad
River Press. ISBN 0-916422-55-0.Tulloss RE;
Yang Z-L (2012). "Amanita sect. Amanita".
Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers.
(Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved
2013-02-21.Moncalvo JM; Drehmel D; Vilgalys
R. (July 2000). "Variation in modes and rates
of evolution in nuclear and mitochondrial
ribosomal DNA in the mushroom genus Amanita
(Agaricales, Basidiomycota): phylogenetic
implications" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics
and Evolution. 16 (1): 48–63. PMID
10877939. doi:10.1006/mpev.2000.0782.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March
2009. Retrieved 2009-02-16.Drehmel D;
Moncalvo JM; Vilgalys R. (1999). "Molecular
phylogeny of Amanita based on large subunit
ribosomal DNA sequences: implications for
taxonomy and character evolution". Mycologia
(abstract). Mycological Society of America.
91 (4): 610–18. JSTOR 3761246.
doi:10.2307/3761246. Retrieved
2009-02-16.Tulloss, R. E. (2012). "Amanita
muscaria (L.: Fr.) Lam. var. muscaria".
Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers.
(Agaricales, Fungi) – Tulloss RE, Yang
Z-L.. Retrieved 2013-02-21.Tulloss RE; Yang
Z-L (2012). "Amanita muscaria subsp.
flavivolvata Singer". Studies in the Genus
Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved
2013-02-21.Phillips R. (1991). Mushrooms of
North America. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
ISBN 0-316-70612-4.Tulloss RE; Yang Z-L
(2012). "Amanita muscaria var. guessowii
Veselý". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers.
(Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved
2013-02-21.Tulloss RE; Yang Z-L (2012).
"Amanita muscaria var. persicina Dav. T.
Jenkins". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers.
(Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved
2013-02-21.Miller OK (1982). "Higher fungi in
Alaskan subarctic tundra and taiga plant
communities". In Laursen GA; Ammirati JF.
Arctic and alpine mycology. Seattle:
University of Washington Press. pp. 123–49.
ISBN 0-295-95856-1.Tulloss RE; Yang Z–L
(2012). "Amanita regalis (Fr.) Michael".
Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers.
(Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved
2013-02-21.Geml J; Laursen GA; O'Neill K;
Nusbaum HC; Taylor DL (January 2006).
"Beringian origins and cryptic speciation
events in the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria)"
(PDF). Molecular Ecology. 15 (1): 225–39.
PMID 16367842.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02799.x.
Archived from the original (PDF) on
2011-07-16.Geml, J.; Tulloss, R. E.; Laursen,
G. A.; et al. (2008). "Evidence for strong
inter- and intracontinental phylogeographic
structure in Amanita muscaria, a
wind-dispersed ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete"
(PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.
48 (2): 694–701. PMID 18547823.
doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.029. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-26.
Retrieved 2009-10-28.Tulloss, R. E. (2012).
"Amanita breckonii Ammirati & Thiers".
Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers.
(Agaricales, Fungi) – Tulloss RE, Yang
Z-L.. Retrieved 2013-02-21.Tulloss, R. E.
(2012). "Amanita gioiosa S. Curreli ex S.
Curreli". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers.
(Agaricales, Fungi) – Tulloss RE, Yang
Z-L.. Retrieved 2013-02-21.Tulloss, R. E.
(2012). "Amanita heterochroma S. Curreli".
Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers.
(Agaricales, Fungi) – Tulloss RE, Yang
Z-L.. Retrieved 2013-02-21.Zeitlmayr L.
(1976). Wild mushrooms: an illustrated
handbook. Hertfordshire, UK: Garden City
Press. ISBN 0-584-10324-7.Arora, D. (1986).
Mushrooms demystified: a comprehensive guide
to the fleshy fungi (2nd ed.). Berkeley: Ten
Speed Press. pp. 282–83. ISBN
0-89815-169-4.Jordan P; Wheeler S. (2001).
The ultimate mushroom book. Hermes House.
ISBN 0-8317-3080-3.Phillips R. (2006).
Mushrooms. Pan MacMillan. p. 140. ISBN
0-330-44237-6.Haas H. (1969). The young
specialist Looks at fungi. Burke. p. 94. ISBN
0-222-79414-3.Krieger LCC (1967). The
mushroom handbook. Dover. ISBN
0-486-21861-9.Grey P. (2005). Fungi Down


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stxhdfjc utx

نزديك به ٨٠ ميليون خودرو و بيش از١٠٠ ميليون موتورسيكلت در جهان توليد مي‌شود. تعداد خودروهاي موجود در جهان از مرز يك ميليارد گذشت. بنزين و گازوئيل تا يك دهه پيش، صرفاً از طريق پالايش نفت توليد مي‌شد اما در١٠ سال اخير توليد بنزين و گازوييل از ميعانات گازي نيز در برخي كشورها خصوصاً ايران اجرايي شد كه نمونه بارز آن پالايشگاه ستاره خليج فارس است. در شرايط كنوني قيمت بنزين و گازوئيل پالايشگاه‌هاي با خوراك نفت خام از حاشيه سود كمي برخوردار است . حاشيه سود پالايشگاه‌هاي با خوراك ميعانات گازي نيز از حاشيه سود چندان مناسبي برخوردار نيست ،چرا كه فاصله قيمت America that must be detoxified before
consumption.[65]Use of this mushroom as a
food source also seems to have existed in
North America. A classic description of this
use of A. muscaria by an African-American
mushroom seller in Washington, D.C., in the
late 19th century is described by American
botanist Frederick Vernon Coville. In this
case, the mushroom, after parboiling, and
soaking in vinegar, is made into a mushroom
sauce for steak.[116] It is also consumed as
a food in parts of Japan. The most well-known
current use as an edible mushroom is in
Nagano Prefecture, Japan. There, it is
primarily salted and pickled.[117]A 2008
paper by food historian William Rubel and
mycologist David Arora gives a history of
consumption of A. muscaria as a food and
describes detoxification methods. They
advocate that Amanita muscaria be described
in field guides as an edible mushroom, though
accompanied by a description on how to
detoxify it. The authors state that the
widespread descriptions in field guides of
this mushroom as poisonous is a reflection of
cultural bias, as several other popular
edible species, notably morels, are toxic
unless properly cooked.[65]Legal
statusAustraliaAmanita muscaria in Mount
Lofty, South AustraliaPhotographed in Mount
Lofty Botanic Gardens, Adelaide Hills, South
AustraliaMuscimol found within Amanita
muscaria is considered a Schedule 9
prohibited substance in Australia under the
Poisons Standard (October 2015).[118] A
Schedule 9 substance is a substance which may
be abused or misused, the manufacture,
possession, sale or use of which should be
prohibited by law except when required for
medical or scientific research, or for
analytical, teaching or training purposes
with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or
Territory Health Authorities.[118]The
NetherlandsAmanita muscaria and Amanita
pantherina are illegal to buy, sell, or
possess since December 2008. Possession of
amounts larger than 0.5 g dried or 5 g fresh
lead to a criminal charge.[119]United
KingdomIt is illegal to produce, supply, or
import this drug under the Psychoactive
Substance Act, which came into effect on May
26, 2016.[120]Cultural depictionsMoritz von
Schwind's 1851 painting of Rübezahl features
fly agarics.[121]The red-and-white spotted
toadstool is a common image in many aspects
of popular culture.[32] Garden ornaments and
children's picture books depicting gnomes and
fairies, such as the Smurfs, often show fly
agarics used as seats, or homes.[32][122] Fly
agarics have been featured in paintings since
the Renaissance,[123] albeit in a subtle
manner. In the Victorian era they became more
visible, becoming the main topic of some
fairy paintings.[124] Two of the most يFTM
Frameworkحال چه شده است كه
افرادي با تفكرات وهابيت
و ضدشيعه همچون "جمال
ابوحسن" مدعي حمايت از
آذربايجان شده است؟جاي آن
دارد كه تمامي Immortality, p
198.Magnus A. (1256). "Book II, Chapter 6; p
87 and Book VI, Chapter 7; p 345". De
vegetabilibus.Ramsbottom, p 44.Clusius C.
(1601). "Genus XII of the pernicious
mushrooms". Rariorum plantarum
historia.Linnaeus C. (1745). Flora svecica
[suecica] exhibens plantas per regnum Sueciae
crescentes systematice cum differentiis
specierum, synonymis autorum, nominibus
incolarum, solo locorum, usu pharmacopæorum
(in Latin). Stockholm: Laurentii
Salvii.Linnaeus C (1753). "Tomus II". Species
Plantarum (in Latin). Stockholm: Laurentii
Salvii. p. 1172.Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's
Latin dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell
Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.Esser K;
Lemke PA (1994). The Mycota: a comprehensive
treatise on fungi as experimental systems for
basic and applied research. Springer. p. 181.
ISBN 3-540-66493-9.Wasson, Soma: Divine
Mushroom of Immortality, p 200.Benjamin,
Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, pp
306–07.Samorini, Giorgio (2002). Animals
and psychedelics: the natural world and the
instinct to alter consciousness. 823/1251
(67%) in Kindle edition. ISBN
0-89281-986-3.Michelot D; Melendez-Howell LM.
(2003). "Amanita muscaria: chemistry,
biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology".
Mycological Research. 107 (Pt 2): 131–46.


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xutrfcxudtjxs

ژانويه 2013 در انجمن تالار گفتمان بورسصفحه 988 از 988< قبلي1→983984985986987988 kahekaheWell-Known Memberكاربر فعالتاريخ عضويت:‏14 مارس 2016ارسال ها:1,214تشكر شده:1,043تحولي بزرگتر از پتروشيمي با تكنولوژيGTLروزانه حدود ۹۰ ميليون و سالانه تقريباً ٣٣ ميليارد بشكه بنزين در جهان تجارت مي‌شود و طي ۲۰ تا ۳۰ سال آينده روند مصرف بنزين درجهان همچنان با رشد كمي افزايشي خواهد بود.[​IMG]به گزارش اقتصادآنلاين ، شهروند نوشت : بخش عمده بنزين و گازوييل در خودرو‌هاي سبك و سنگين استفاده مي‌شود. هوا‍‌پيماها و قايق‌هاي موتوري و موتورسيكلت‌ها نيز از جمله مصرف‌كنندگان عمده بنزين هستند. سالانه muscaria.[99]VikingsThe notion that Vikings
used A. muscaria to produce their berserker
rages was first suggested by the Swedish
professor Samuel Ödmann in 1784.[100]
Ödmann based his theories on reports about
the use of fly agaric among Siberian shamans.
The notion has become widespread since the
19th century, but no contemporary sources
mention this use or anything similar in their
description of berserkers. Muscimol is
generally a mild relaxant, but it can create
a range of different reactions within a group
of people.[101] It is possible that it could
make a person angry, or cause them to be
"very jolly or sad, jump about, dance, sing
or give way to great fright".[101]Fly
trapAmanita muscaria is traditionally used
for catching flies possibly due to its
content of ibotenic acid and muscimol.
Recently, an analysis of nine different
methods for preparing A. muscaria for
catching flies in Slovenia have shown that
the release of ibotenic acid and muscimol did
not depend on the solvent (milk or water) and
that thermal and mechanical processing led to
faster extraction of ibotenic acid and
muscimol.[102]In religionSomaSee also:
Botanical identity of Soma-HaomaIn 1968, R.
Gordon Wasson proposed that A. muscaria was
the Soma talked about in the Rig Veda of
India,[103] a claim which received widespread
publicity and popular support at the
time.[104] He noted that descriptions of Soma
omitted any description of roots, stems or
seeds, which suggested a mushroom,[105] and
used the adjective hári "dazzling" or
"flaming" which the author interprets as
meaning red.[106] One line described men
urinating Soma; this recalled the practice of
recycling urine in Siberia. Soma is mentioned
as coming "from the mountains", which Wasson
interpreted as the mushroom having been
brought in with the Aryan invaders from the
north.[107] Indian scholars Santosh Kumar
Dash and Sachinanda Padhy pointed out that
both eating of mushrooms and drinking of
urine were proscribed, using as a source the
Manusmṛti.[108] In 1971, Vedic scholar John
Brough from Cambridge University rejected
Wasson's theory and noted that the language
was too vague to determine a description of
Soma.[109] In his 1976 survey, Hallucinogens
and Culture, anthropologist Peter T. Furst
evaluated the evidence for and against the
identification of the fly agaric mushroom as
the Vedic Soma, concluding cautiously in its
favour.[110]ChristianityMosaic of red
mushrooms, found in the Christian Basilica of
Aquileia in northern Italy, dating to before
330 AD.Philologist, archeologist, and Dead
Sea Scrolls scholar John Marco Allegro
postulated that early Christian theology was
derived from a fertility cult revolving
around the entheogenic consumption of A.
muscaria in his 1970 book The Sacred Mushroom
and the Cross,[111] but his theory has found
little support by scholars outside the field
of ethnomycology. The book was roundly
discredited by academics and theologians,
including Sir Godfrey Driver, Emeritus
Professor of Semitic Philology at Oxford
University, and Henry Chadwick, the Dean of
Christ Church, Oxford.[112] Christian author
John C. King wrote a detailed rebuttal of
Allegro's theory in the 1970 book A Christian
View of the Mushroom Myth; he notes that
neither fly agarics nor their host trees are
found in the Middle East, even though cedars
and pines are found there, and highlights the
tenuous nature of the links between biblical
and Sumerian names coined by Allegro. He
concludes that if the theory were true, the
use of the mushroom must have been "the best
kept secret in the world" as it was so well
concealed for two thousand
years.[113][114]Culinary useThe toxins in A.
muscaria are water-soluble. When sliced
thinly, or finely diced and spat onto earth,
detoxified A. muscaria has been practiced in
some parts of Europe (notably by Russian
settlers in Siberia) since at least the 19th
century, and likely earlier. The German
physician and naturalist Georg Heinrich von
Langsdorff wrote the earliest published
account on how to detoxify this mushroom in
1823. In the late 19th century, the French
physician Félix Archimède Pouchet was a
populariser and advocate of A. muscaria
consumption, comparing it to manioc, an
important food source in tropical South


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